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Ming and Qing imperial emerald scientific recognition and quality standards in the first half

Sichuan Yibin, native of Yuhang (now Hangzhou), born in the fifties of the last century, with Master of Beijing Normal University Literature (the mentor for the famous Chinese masters Xu Jialu former vice chairman), University of Medicine double degree. Painters, calligraphers, collectors (from the age of 10 in 1960, collect stamps, RMB, cigarette boxes and other miscellaneous items, mainly after the collection of ancient Ming and Qing dynasties jade). Chinese famous multidisciplinary scholars: Chinese medical scientists, medical animal experiment scientists, Chinese classical philologists, scholarship and lexicographers, from 2011 onwards with the direction of Chinese painting graduate (formerly with experimental medicine, philology, acupuncture and more Direction graduate students), and to create the National Academy of Fine Arts Academy, painting academy. Currently: Professor of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (three national posts), fibrosis pathology and Chinese cartier love diamond medicine inhibition of organ fibrosis biological mechanism (molecular mechanism) research team leader and leader in this direction at home and abroad, the State Council directly project a major national culture Project and National Eleventh Five-Year Plan for Cultural Development Important Project 'Chinese ceremony' Pilot Project 'Medical Health Code,' Secretary-General (and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Chief Scientist Zheng Jinsheng together to hold this position, the post similar to the national key cartier love bangle diamond project pilot office director ). Part-time: National Natural Science Foundation project review experts, National Science and Technology Award review expert library experts, the national Ministry of Education doctoral fund project review experts, Sichuan philosophy and social science planning and awarding experts (art Chinese painting and calligraphy direction), the national ' Ancient Chinese medicine protection and utilization of capacity-building projects 'Sichuan area review experts, Sichuan Province (Natural) Science and Technology Award review experts. Compared with Hetian jade, Lantian jade, Dushan jade and other nephrite everywhere visible veins, rubies, sapphires, emeralds and other Western concept of gemstone in many countries visible production, high-grade jade (commercially called 'gem grade jade') Only the people of Myanmar are qualified; and smart and beautiful, beautiful high-end old emerald, and Western gems that 'just Lee' exposed edge compared with the oriental traditional aesthetic orientation 'gentle subtle beauty' Charming charm. On the old jade in the top of the goods (referred to in this article as 'high-end' varieties), the so-called 'water material \\ seed material' (after the nature of the handling of 'secondary ore' emerald), even in Myanmar, Beifu Lu (also known as Wulongjiang, etc.) about 60 km long ancient river bed and its lot. Moreover, according to historical records, as early as the Guangxu period, ie, AD 1881, it was discovered that 'all mining was exhausted' and by 1963, it was even more difficult to find its fate. This is what this article is about ' Old jade '(the province said' old jade '). The Burmese emeralds now being produced are basically all 'mountain junk' (the 'new emerald of primary ore') whose overall quality is far less than that of 'water jelly' (old emerald).

However, such a precious and beautiful 'Eastern Emerald' is confronted with the miscarriage of justice of the 'Golden Age Oddities, Ming and Qing Dynasties' and the suffering of 'Wang Zhaojun being framed' as an 'ugly woman.'

The cause of the incident stems from a 'miracle' that shocked both China and foreign countries in 2011: Mr. Yao Zheng, director of the jade special committee of China Collectors Association at that time, disclosed that Ms. Chen, who bought an emerald ornament at a jewelry store, The country's commodity inspection authorities (in 2016, all the 'State Commodity Inspection' were canceled all over the word 'country' and all became 'private general commodity inspection') were identified as A (that is, natural jadeite products), but were worn 3 years later to get the same country when the re-inspection of commodity inspection authorities, the result was told that the 'B goods' (acid soaked for 10 days to dissolve the variegated jade impurities, so that the internal structure of jade was Strong damage to become more loose 'pink jade', and then injected into the transparent plastic such as epoxy resin to be firmly fixed, the 'pickling' 'plastic injection' process in the country inspection certificate was described as 'jade treatment' , Which is commonly known as 'B goods' emerald.But natural emerald to be dyed, then called 'C goods' jade .If both pickling filling and dyeing, it is called 'B + C goods'). At that time, in just half a year, the China Collectors Association received more than 3,000 pieces of allegations from various localities that the old Jadeite was misjudged as 'B + C goods' by the State Administration for Commodity Inspection of various places. Most of the old jadeites Inheritance and order. Grandmother, daughter-in-law, daughter-in-law, pass on three generations of jade bracelets become worthless; the world-famous Sotheby's captured emerald earrings even 'too' national inspection 'machine'; Parts of the workshop of the old collection has also been identified as 'B + C goods'; there is a well-known museum collection Xianfang concubine Princess Shili Shiyi still 'change' has become a 'B + C goods' and made the museum Everyone is stunned, all the restless! ... So, after careful consideration, the China Collectors Association collected dozens of old jadeite jade pieces from the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty from dozens of old collectors and institutions. . Identification results are surprising, because the visual arts expert Shuangxin Jiangyin visual results are: '94 for the A cargo natural old jade, and another 6 are' B + C goods 'fake treatment of jade.' The State Inspection Identification of the result is: '99 are' B + C goods 'fake emerald, only one is a cargo Jade.' This staggering different results, soon be 'Beijing Commercial Daily' published, Subvert the basic logic of human wisdom and social common sense.

This 'miracle' quickly spread throughout China and spread abroad. It attracted the attention of a scientist specializing in jadeite jade research (allegedly, Mr. Yao Zheng went to look for him) from the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The scientist is Dr. Wang Chunyun, a famous jadeite miner at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Wang thought: The old Jade is a natural A cargo or a fake BC goods, is a scientific problem, the business community can not solve the scientific problems, should be put to the scientific community to solve the scientists on the people's livelihood about the big nonsense Scientific issues, with an unshirkable instinct responsibility. Therefore, Dr. Wang has 30 years of emerald research based on the experience of the Ming and Qing Dynasties started the old jade 'ABC goods' authenticity identification research program, Dr. Wang research team in the Chinese Academy of Sciences sophisticated technology and equipment and cutting-edge advanced science Under the support of theory, after two years of clutter, finally in April 2013 made a scientific and authoritative breakthrough.

National Commercial Testing Institutions across the Taiwan Strait appraise the old and the new emerald is more 'extensive' and backward infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet fluorescent and other equipment. Instrument backwardness is one aspect, the theory behind is a more important aspect: the detection theory has been stuck in the 25 years ago the United States Institute of Jewelry established the theoretical level, the experimental sample was not included in the Ming and Qing dynasties old jade, the scientific community It is well known that lack of samples can not be compared with correct research results. This is like trying to understand the taste of pears without looking for pears. Instead, you look for peaches, plums and other fruits to taste the results. One can imagine. The backwardness and 'extensiveness' of the infrared spectrometer lies in that it can only detect the 'organic matter' contained in the jadeite. As for what exactly belongs to the 'organic matter', the backward instrument can not detect it. B goods emerald pickled after injection of epoxy resin, 'glue', C goods emerald stain most of the stains, are 'organic matter', so the national inspection agency on the infrared spectrometer measured the jade contains 'organic matter ', While the jade will be inspected, including the Ming and Qing dynasties are always set for the old Jade cargo. Well, the Ming and Qing dynasties jade did not inject epoxy resin and other 'glue', but why the State inspection agencies will be set as BC goods? It turned out that the old jade in the Ming and Qing Dynasties does contain 'organic matter.'

Ming and Qing dynasties in the old jade 'organic matter', in the end is where the sacred? What is the nature of 'organic matter'? The answer has to be taken from the breakthrough research results of Dr Wang Chunyun's research team.

Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences is the highest national forefront of research geochemical substances and changes in the full-time scientific research institutions, their national laboratory research level, with the world-class laboratories for comparison, in China is certainly the first class In the world is also first class. The instrument they use is the Laser Raman Spectrometer of the 'National Organic Geochemical Laboratory', which precisely identifies microseconds microseconds of micrometer hair, which is currently in the world The most advanced cutting-edge organic matter identification equipment (see Figure 1). Dr. Wang used laser Raman probes to detect the properties of the substances contained in the old emerald. This detection technique is currently a very effective means of studying trace molecules all over the world. Of course, this cartier gold bracelet men copy kind of scientific testing is very difficult. The operators are required to have very high theoretical level and operational skills. Those who carry out short-term training in the State Administration of Commodity Inspection have no regular examiners who do not have a master's degree nor a doctoral degree, Of course, it can not be operated, and Dr. Wang's research team went through very hard and painstaking research after two years of hard work. At last, he finally got ten very beautiful lines. Surprising surprise is that the old jade in the years due to the vicissitudes of life and infiltration of the 'organic' aging wax crystallization, is actually the reason why the old jade 'by color' hero, it is this wax crystal, to improve the emerald-specific Head and color, plays a vital role - ha, the more worn the old jade emerald, the original turned out to be its credit.

The magnifying glass was observed in the old jade Pieces dense turn of the radiant nebula-like organic matter, resulting in more beautiful and beautiful old jade, beautiful, but by laser Raman spectroscopy reached its spectrum is a very standard paraffin Spectrum, that is to say, 'Filling' is a small hole in the old emerald mineral, organic matter in the fissure is a paraffin, paraffin-like grains, is 'wax' and not the country inspection agency mistaken for 'glue 'Or' stain. ' Of course, the paraffin wax in the old jadeite is different from the new paraffin wax in liquid paraffin. The difference is that it adds two sharp peaks in the wave number from 1350 to 1600. Before the research team of Wang Chunyun made the result, The existence of these two sharp peaks has been unable to explain, after two years of hard research, Wang team found that wax is a kind of crystal produced by the aging of the line, that is, the wax inside the jade into the resulting changes, resulting Aging, carbonization, and the formation of crystals, it is no longer a liquid but a solid, and it is a crystallized crystal of carbonated crystals, which I call 'alternative waxy' ( Dr. Wang calls it 'Crystallized Graphite or Paraffin') - The reason why I call it this way is due to my book Old Jade or other related articles.

Here is a special note that: so far, human landscaping on the jade, but also the use of plastic can only be used as a filling epoxy resin, there is no second alternative filler, more impossible Use 'wax' to fill, because you can say for example: 'plastic' if the equivalent of building materials 'brick', then 'wax' can only be equivalent to 'tofu' and slightly hot Melted, so 'thinner', tender weak 'wax' is absolutely impossible to pickle jade filling - a small number of hate the old jade 'Hill materialist' nonsense 'BC goods filled with wax Emerald ', is totally laughable big outsiders do not understand common sense.

From the above we can see that the essence of Dr. Wang Chunyun's team's research achievements lies in the identification and research of the category of this organism. This alone shows that Dr. Wang Chunyun made a breakthrough in the scientific research of the 'true pseudo-issue' of the old emerald in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and it is no exaggeration to say that this achievement has been shown to the Chinese and foreigners: Old jade in the organic matter is not the kind of organic BC goods, BC goods are BC goods, the old jade is the old jade, yards go yard, the old jade without any artificial fraud, is still pure nature, and its quality Far more than other types of jade.

Since organic substances in old jadeite are only 'waxed carbonized crystals (grains)' rather than 'gums' or 'pigments,' how does this 'wax' enter the old jadeite? This is cartier gold bracelet men replica from the final process of jade artifacts 'polished' Speaking:

Emerald workpiece surface must be polished, otherwise it will not be smooth, smooth and shiny, difficult to have commercial value and appreciate the value.

Ming and Qing Dynasties and the Republic of China, because at that time there is no such advanced polishing machinery and technology, so then the jade products must go through the last process, that is, with sour plum or straw ash short-term immersion, washed away with this weak acid weak base Jade processing jade left in the products on the sweat, metal shavings, etc. (weak acid and alkali short-term contact can not destroy this jade 'jade' internal structure, only the kind of false to heat the acid soak for a long time stirring, In order to 'pickling' the variegated impurities inside the jade and destroy the internal structure of the jade make it a substantial decline in the hardness of the 'pink jade', it is very important - see Ouyang Qiumei 'Emerald Complete Works'), and then 'stew Wax 'polish, that is produced in Sichuan insect wax fluid in the past (large green pieces are' spray ') to cover the surface of the jade emerald pores, ditches and enhance the surface smoothness, so jade products on the left Under the 'wax' this 'organic matter.' However, after years of baptism, most of the waxy organisms on the old jadeite surface will gradually wear away. However, some residual wax gradually enters the interior of the jadeite through the tiny pores, pits and ditches of jadeite More in its superficial layer). This is only the first way that 'organic matter' has infiltrated Old Jade. There are, of course, other ways to do this. I have already concluded that there are as many as six ways. I would like to make a public announcement here:

The first way: the remnants of old emerald residual wax is an organic matter (as mentioned above, the old jade products must go through the 'stew wax' this process), after a long period of erosion, the fragile wax layer will Will be worn away, of course, will inevitably have a small amount of residual wax remaining in the superficial emerald tiny pits, pores and ditches (emerald different from diamonds and other gems unique monoclinic interlaced mineral structure determines it must There are innumerable small pits, voids and ditches, and the old and the new jadeite are all the same. Therefore, 'Shan-pei-faction' slander the old emerald on the surface with acid etching pattern, which can not withstand scientific scrutiny. The scientific principle of I have a detailed argument in the book).

The second way: Due to the vicissitudes of life and lost the surface of the 'wax protective film' of the old emerald, shading, the protection of failure, numerous jade itself small pits, pores, ditches exposed, any soap water, detergent, cosmetics, etc. As well as benzene, naphthalene, esters, alkanes, acids, amines, chlorine, ketones, phenols, alkenes and other organic substances may infiltrate into.

The third way: the outside world a variety of complex micro-organisms, including microorganisms and mineral dust, such as invisible bacteria, spores, viruses, mites and other microorganisms and their metabolites (common readers can understand these microorganisms are 'urine') Is organic, over time all of a sudden can undoubtedly penetrate into the old jade.

The fourth route: According to the relevant information in my writings, a scientific hypothesis was put forward that the old emerald is deep underground, erupted from a volcano, and the earthquakes spurt it out of the earth surface. After that, Was 'transported' to the secondary deposits of fog Luhe ancient riverbed, undergoing 'heat treatment' and then 'cold treatment.' So shabby split the bath fire rebirth, the Phoenix Nirvana, inevitably have a variety of organic matter into these reborn in the ancient Gu Cuiyi inside, or their body will produce mysterious organic matter itself.
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    By LLLOO6
    Added Dec 7 '17


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